Prediction of Three-Directional Ground Reaction Forces during Walking Using a Shoe Sole Sensor System and Machine Learning
掲載日 2023年11月17日
発表者 Takeshi Yamaguchi, Yuya Takahashi, Yoshihiro Sasaki
雑誌名等 Sensors 2023, 23, 8985.

We developed a shoe sole sensor system with four high-capacity, compact triaxial force sensors using a nitrogen added chromium strain-sensitive thin film mounted on the sole of a shoe. A regression model to predict three-directional ground reaction forces from force sensor outputs was created using multiple linear regression and Gaussian process regression. In the model trained on data from the straight walking and turning trials, the percent root-mean-square error (%RMSE) for predicting the GRFs in the anteroposterior and vertical directions was less than 15%, except for the GRF in the mediolateral direction. The model trained separately for straight walking, side-step turning, and cross-step turning showed a %RMSE of less than 15% in all directions in the GPR model, which is considered accurate for practical use.